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01716--chiasmus

Chiasmus is a figure of speech by which the order of the terms in the first of two parallel clauses is reversed in the second. This may involve a repetition of the same words, in which case the figure may be classified as antimetabole, or just a reversed parallel between two corresponding pairs of ideas, as in this line from Mary Leapor's 'Essay on Woman' (1751): Despised, if ugly; if she's fair, betrayed.
The figure is especially common in 18th-century English poetry, but is also found in prose of all periods. It is named after the Greek letter chi, indicating a 'criss-cross' arrangement of terms. 

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