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01180-- Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples




Parts of Speech: Definition and Examples


Parts of Speech
Function
Examples

Noun
names a person, a place, a thing, an idea, a quality, or an action

ü  Common
serves as a general name, or a name common to an entire group
king, monster, ship, ocean
ü  Proper
names a specific, one-of-a-kind person, place, or thing
Chaucer, London, Thames River 
ü  Singular
refers to a single person, place, thing, or idea
woman, river, leaf, flame
ü  Plural
refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea
women, rivers, leaves, flames
ü  Concrete
names something that can be perceived by the senses
rose, church, bell, sky
ü  Abstract
names something that cannot be perceived by the senses contentment
honour, faith, trust
ü  Compound
expresses a single idea through a combination of two or more words
sunshine, middle class, mother-in-law
ü  Collective
refers to a group of people or things
crop, crew, family
ü  Possessive
shows who or what owns something
Burns’s, mice’s, nature’s, fields’
Pronoun
takes the place of a noun or another pronoun

ü  Personal
refers to the person making a statement, the person(s) being addressed, or the person(s) or thing(s) the statement is about
I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, she, he, it, her, him, hers, his, its, they, them, their, theirs



ü  Reflexive
follows a verb or preposition and refers to a preceding noun or pronoun
myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
ü  Intensive
emphasizes a noun or another pronoun
(same as reflexives)
ü  Demonstrative
points to one or more specific persons or things
this, that, these, those
ü  Interrogative
signals a question
who, whom, whose, which, what
ü  Indefinite
refers to one or more persons or things not specifically mentioned
both, all, most, many, anyone, everybody, several, none, some
ü  Relative
introduces an adjective clause by relating it to a word in the clause
who, whom, whose, which, that
Verb
expresses an action, a condition, or a state of being

ü  Action
tells what the subject does or did, physically or mentally
run, reaches, listened, consider, decides, dreamed
ü  Linking
connects the subject to something that identifies or describes it
am, is, are, was, were, sound, taste, appear, feel, become, remain, seem
ü  Auxiliary
precedes the main verb in a verb phrase
be, have, do, can, could, will, would, may, might
ü  Transitive
directs the action toward someone or something; always has an object
The wind snapped the young tree in half.
ü  Intransitive
does not direct the action toward someone or something; does not have an object
The young tree snapped.
Adjective
modifies a noun or pronoun
frightened man, two epics, enough time
Adverb
modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
walked out, really funny, far away
Preposition
relates one word to another word
at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with
Conjunction
joins words or word groups

ü  Coordinating
joins words or word groups used the same way
and, but, or, for, so, yet, nor
ü  Correlative
used as a pair to join words or word groups used the same way
both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor
ü  Subordinating
introduces a clause that cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence
although, after, as, before, because, when, if, unless
Interjection

expresses emotion
whew, yikes, uh-oh



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